Welcome…

… to the “The Road To Endeavour”, a blog dedicated to following the ongoing mission of the Mars Exploration Rover ‘Opportunity’ as she explores the rim of the giant martian crater ‘Endeavour’!

Opportunity – or “Oppy” as many rover enthusiasts call her – landed on Mars eight years ago, and it was hoped at the time that she’d last maybe 90 days and drive up to a kilometre across the surface of Mars. Eight years later, having survived dust storms, mechanical problems and everything Mars can throw at her, Oppy is still working, and after driving to and studying several smaller craters further north, near her original landing site, she’s now studying a huge crater called “Endeavour”, analysing the rocks and dust there, trying to figure out if that part of Mars was once wetter, and warmer, and maybe even a possible habitat for life. Every day she takes, and sends back to Earth, photographs of the martian landscape, and this is where you’ll find them – original images and many I create myself, by stitching together raw images, colourising them or turning pairs of them into 3D “anaglyphs” which can give you the impresion of being *on* Mars…

This is actually a blog I wasn’t planning to write. I was planning on starting up a blog dedicated to the Mars Science Laboratory – NASA’s next mission to Mars – but when it was announced back in December 2008 the launch of MSL (the “Mars Science Laboratory”, or “Curiosity” to give her her proper name) had been put back from 2009 to 2011, so this is Plan B: a blog that I hoped would turn into a kind of travelogue, first following Opportunity’s long, loooong drive south to Endeavour crate and then chronicling her adventures once she got there – IF she got there…

Well, she not only got there, but since getting there she’s done some amazing science – and the best may yet be to come…

So, here’s the place to come for images of Endeavour Crater, as seen by Mars Reconaissance Orbiter and other probes, and by Oppy herself. It’s not meant to be serious, or particularly scientific, just a place to come for some interesting pictures and news updates, really. I hope you like what you find here, and keep checking for new images. :-)

Stuart Atkinson

@mars-stu on Twitter

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Opportunity Climbs On…

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Apologies for the lack of updates recently – if you’re a regular reader who’s bothered by their absence, that is. It’s always nice to be missed, but some people take a real huff if I don’t add posts for a while, so I hope they haven’t been too inconvenienced, but occasionally real life takes over and I have to do real life stuff, you know, holidays, writing for publishers, WORK, etc… – but back now with an update on what our favourite plucky martian rover has been up to.

Over the past few days Oppy has actually reached a major milestone in her mission, which is now over a decade long don’t forget. When we last looked in on her, Oppy was making steady progress up the slope of Solander Point, just rolling slowly but surely on her way, up and away from the crater floor scrunching across the rocky ground towards a high point in the local landscape. She has just reached that high point, and the view is… well, I’ll come to that shortly. Time for a quick recap, I think…

Let’s go back a in time, almost exactly three years ago to mid April 2011, to when Oppy was just approaching Endeavour Crater, having successfully crossed the great Meridiani Desert after her exhaustive survey of Victoria Crater, a journey many (including me, sometimes) thought she would never complete. On the horizon, up ahead, she could see these hills…

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Those hills marked the rim of Endeavour Crater, and at that time they still seemed impossibly far away. How wonderful, we all thought, it would be to see them up closer! But never mind…

Well, as history shows, not only did Oppy reach those hills just four months later, but she drove past them before beginning her exploration of Endeavour Crater on the small rocky “island” of Cape York, and looking south as she rolled up onto Spirit Point, Oppy sent back views of those hills – now to her south instead of up ahead! – which were just spectacular…

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Oppy then spent a good – a very good! – year trundling around Cape York, studying its rocks, craters and ledges, and trashing gypsum veins, then rolled off it again and headed south, for those beckoning hills. It was a big ask of a little rover which had already achieved so much, surviving dust storms, computer glitches and technical gremlins, but the potential discoveries to be made up in those hills – large deposits of clay-bearing minerals had been detected there by orbiting spacecraft – meant it was the obvious thing to do. So, off Oppy set, heading south, and after rounding “Knobby’s Head” she rolled triumphantly up onto the gentle ramp marking the base of the hills – “Solander Point”. Since then she has climbed up that slope, slowly, steadily, surely, and with each week the view around, behind and ahead of her has grown more and more beautiful. A couple of weeks ago, this is what she was seeing…

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Look at that… in the distance, on the horizon, that’s the OTHER SIDE of Endeavour Crater, more than 20km away, and in the foreground a wealth of weathered slabs, plates, chunks and outcrops of ancient martian rock glows in the martian sunlight… And looking over her shoulder, back to where she had come from, Oppy saw this…

up

… her own wheel tracks leading down Solander, back to The World Below…

Since then as Oppy’s height has increased her view has improved accordingly, and at the beginning of last week she was approaching that aforementioned high point in the local terrain. This was the scene which now lay ahead of her…

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…and many rover watchers looking at those photos spotted that there was something very dramatic and important coming into view. Not much to look at yet, admittedly, just a “something else” poking its head up from behind the summit of the hill up ahead, but that something else was… incredible…

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That, circled, is the closest part of Cape Tribulation, the rover’s Promised Land, where we think those clay-bearing minerals are waiting for her. After all the months of slogging, all the years of driving wearily across the desert, she’s almost there, almost there, and that’s an amazing achievement.

Take a look at where Oppy is now (roughly, this is just my best guess)…

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But it’s only when you look at the bigger picture it becomes clear just what an achievement this is…

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So what Oppy was seeing, poking over the horizon at the top of the hill, was the northern slope of Cape Tribulation, beckoning to her…

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Over the next couple of days the view opened up even more. Unfortunately I couldn’t enjoy the grand unveiling properly because I was only able to access the rover’s images on my phone whilst on holiday, away from WiFi, but they looked tantalising enough even on my Samsung’s screen. Now I’m home I can enjoy them properly, and make them into panoramas like this one (which is a BIG pic, so click on it to enlarge and explore it properly) showing what Oppy herself was seeing…

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And then, suddenly, a couple of days ago, the ground ahead of Oppy dropped away and there it was, inviting Oppy to explore a whole new geological wonderland of ledges, outcrops and more – Cape Tribulation…

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A closer look…

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Would you like to see that in colour? Of course you would… here, let me show you…

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Isn’t that something? Isn’t that incredible! Opportunity was famously sent to Mars in the hope of lasting 90 days on the surface, and driving for a kilometre, before dying. Ten years – ten YEARS!!!! – and more than 30km later, she’s still going strong, still roving Mars, still exploring, still sending us back stunning sights like these to enjoy.

Opportunity is now up on the tops of the hills she saw on the horizon three years ago. Just think about that for a moment. This little rover is climbing a mountain on Mars, something she was never designed to do.

And this is why, after all these years, after all the kilometres, I still love Opportunity and her mission the way I do. The “other rover” on Mars, the nuclear-powered Curiosity rover, gets way more press attention and praise and support than little Opportunity, which strikes me as grossly unfair. I’m not saying MSL’s isn’t an amazing mission, because it is: Gale Crater is a magnificent place, and the images Curiosity is sending back every day are stunning. But Opportunity has done literally incredible things on Mars, and continues to do so, and WILL continue to do so as long as she survives. ( Unbelievably, her survival isn’t just a matter of how long she lasts physically, but how long she is *allowed to last* by the politicians and bean counters who control her funding. There’s actually a possibility that Oppy could be switched off, while still working perfectly, just to save money… doesn’t the thought of her being turned off while still capable of roving and doing great science, and making more amazing discoveries, just make you feel sick and mad and more? I know it does me…)

For me, these pictures capture the sheer romance and adventure of Oppy’s epic, wheel-torturing trek across Barsoom. I am so proud of that rover, and the teams of men and women behind it, some of whom I have been lucky enough to correspond with and even meet, that I could burst.

Having followed Oppy from construction through to her launch, and having walked virtually alongside her every step of the way every day for the past ten years, I feel a very strong personal connection to her and the teams behind her, much more than I do, and probably ever will, for Curiosity to be honest. I don’t feel the same connection with her. It’s not the rover’s fault – it’s a technological marvel, and has already made some outstanding discoveries, and every day sends back images more stunning than the day before – and it’s nothing to do with her landing site either, which is simply stunning. To be honest, my passion for Curiosity’s mission was snuffed out very early in the mission, and some people know how. I stopped writing my blog about Curiosity, haven’t touched it since, and now, while I still follow Curiosity daily, and marvel at her pictures, the mission itself just leaves me feeling cold and unmoved. Which is wrong, I know, and probably stupid too, some people reading this will think, and it’s not a big deal to or for anyone else, but it’s the way I feel. The MSL mission was essentially ruined for me soon after landing, and for me when I hear the words “the Mars rover” I think of Opportunity, not Curiosity.

But that’s not a bad thing! To me Oppy will never be second best, will never be in Curiosity’s bizarrely-shaped shadow. Nobody puts Oppy in a corner! She’s more of a robot heroine than Curiosity will ever be, and I’ll continue to walk alongside her every sol, with one hand resting on her back as she trundles on uphill and down valley, seeking out new discoveries and new science, as long as she possibly can.

If it’s clear tonight where you are, go outside after dark and look for Mars, shining in the sky like an orange-red star. And think, just for a moment, about Oppy, standing there on her lonely, windswept, frozen hilltop, high up on the edge of a huge impact crater, still roving, still taking and sending back beautiful photos ten years after she should have died.

And if you feel moved to do so, whisper a gentle “Thank you…” to her across all those millions of miles of space. It’s the least you can do.

 

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A ridge with a view…

Opportunity is now seeing some beautiful martian geology from her wind-swept* perch high up above Endeavour Crater, with rocks like these all around her…

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Let’s just recap quickly where she is…

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That shows the huge Endeavour Crater, with Oppy’s tour route to and past first Cape York and then Knobby’s Head, and her present position, all marked. Taking a closer look at where she is on that long range of hills now

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…and an even closer look…

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Let’s look a little closer still…

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That’s where she is! And it’s a great spot to stop and catch her breath. Far below her, the crater is a great stone bowl, ringed by mountains and hills. Behind her, her own tracks lead back down to the flat, dusty plains. Ahead, many more metres of rock- and boulder-strewn ground to cover on the way up to the top of Solander Point…

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…and after driving around a pretty flat, featureless area for quite a while, Oppy has now reached a much more interesting region, with fascinating-looking ridges on the horizon up ahead and a rocky outcrop close by, shown here in a black and white navcam image mosaic.

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Ever the explorer, Oppy drove right up to that ridge, and took some stunning pictures of it…

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Impressive! Ah, but when when you look at that same scene in colour, it really is beautiful… click to enlarge…

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Well, I think that’s beautiful, don’t you? At the moment the “other” Mars rover, Curiosity, is sending back some frankly jaw droppingly beautiful images from Gale Crater, but that image above – actually a mosaic of three different pancam views I’ve stitched together and colourised – is proof that Oppy can still take images to take your breath away, too…

Actually, it seems like Oppy has now driven away from that feature, and has taken up a position a short distance away from it…

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I love that picture… the low angle lighting casting long shadows behind everything, the tracks leading to and then back away from the rocky outcrop, Oppy’s own distinctive shadow cast on the ground by the low Sun… just beautiful… :-)

…and speaking of low Sun’s, Oppy sent back this view a few sols ago, but I’m just getting around to posting it now, sorry…

low sun

What next? Well, personally I’m eager to see Oppy continuing on up the slope, cos I think that when she gets a bit further up she’s going to have an absolutely epic view of the Cape Tribulation heights looming up ahead, and the vast bowl of Endeavour opened up in all its glory beneath and beside her…

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Check back soon to see what happens…

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Another “Rock Garden”…

Oppy continues to head uphill, exploring the upper level of Solander Point, and she’s reached some very rocky, rugged terrain. In fact, there are so many rocks, boulders and stones scattered around her that it feels like being back at the “Rock Garden” of ejecta surrounding Odyssey Crater back on Cape York…

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But where has Oppy got to on her travels? Here…

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I wonder what lies up ahead? Another couple of good drives should carry Oppy to and then over that ridge, and I think well then have a great view down into Endeavour Crater and also right along the range of hills and mountains which forms the western rim of the great crater. In the meantime, it looks like Oppy has been joining in with the “selfie” craze…

selfieCheck back soon for more images and news…

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Oppy under threat as she climbs higher…

… but not, as you might expect, from a savage martian dust storm, or a software failure, or a mechanical glitch. No. Having survived ten years of those, and worse, Opportunity is under threat from these

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Bean-counters. Yes, Opportunity’s future seems to be hanging in the balance because, according to the latest NASA budget details, someone has decided that she isn’t worth keeping going after 2015. Those budget request details for that year show $0 available for Opportunity, meaning, basically, that they’re considering simply switching her off to save money.

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Yes, you read that correctly. They are actually considering turning off a perfectly healthy, invaluable robot, exploring the surface of another world, because they don’t think they can afford it. I’ll give you a moment to pick your jaws up off the floor, and calm down, ok?

Now, it’s important to bear in mind that this is by no means final, it all has to be discussed and reviewed, etc. But the fact they’re even THINKING about doing it baffles and infuriates me. Seriously? I mean, SERIOUSLY? A Government that is spending god knows how many millions of dollars A DAY on military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan can’t find the money to continue to fund what must surely rank as the most successful scientific mission to Mars ever? Are they having a laugh? The US Government, which is run – in theory – by a President who insists, at every opportunity, on telling us how much he loves and supports science, how important it is, how inspiring it is to him and his family, is thinking about pulling the plug on an almost perfectly-healthy robot explorer, which, after driving to and into craters, crossing vast seas of dust and rocks, survived dust storms and everything mars has thrown at it, is now climbing a mountain on Mars looking for traces of ancient clays?

Where the hell did this come from? What the hell is NASA thinking? Why aren’t they up in arms about this? They are seriously thinking of turning off one of the most successful robotic explorers ever built, which has inspired a whole generation of kids, engineers and armchair scientists, and changed our view of Mars, because they say they can’t afford it? Why don’t they stop messing about with all those Powerpoint-fuelled unrealistic fantasy daydreams of mega rockets, asteroid captures and manned Mars fly-bys and use their money sensibly? It’s lunacy.

I hope this will all end up just being shot down, and that the funds needed to keep Opportunity going are found – actually, they don’t have to be “found”, they’re already there, just being wasted on other things – and Opportunity can continue her grand adventure. If they do turn her off, just to save money, history will judge them and their short-sighted stupidity very, very harshly indeed.

On a brighter note, Oppy is now making good progress up Solander Point, and after the recent excitement over “Pinnacle Island” is getting back down to good, basic science and studying some of the more ordinary looking rocks at her feet. To recap quickly, let’s see where Oppy is now, compared to where she landed all those years ago…

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And where is she on Solander Point..? Here…

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She has now driven up to this intriguing gathering of rocks…

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…and is studying it with the instruments on the end of her robot arm…

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Here’s a colour view of some of those rocks…

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See? Not particularly glamourous-looking, those rocks, just… rocks, good old martian rocks… but that’s how science works, anywhere, not just on Mars. The exciting and unusual comes and goes, but often it’s the study of the mundane and ordinary which tells us the most.

Oppy has been doing this for a decade now, with incredible success. I hope she can continue to do it for a long time yet. Of course, Opportunity could fail any day, any moment. Her software could go nuts. A motor could stall. A camera could break. The rover’s mission could be ended by any one of a dozen, a hundred, a thousand unfortunate things. To think of it being ended because NASA can’t find – or step up, grow a pair and fight for – the ridiculously small (by NASA and US Government standards) amount of money needed to keep her going is just heartbreaking and infuriating.

Let’s hope everyone involved sees sense.

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Farewell Pinnacle Island…

A last couple of images of the area around Pinnacle Island before Oppy starts exploring a new region of the slopes…

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Really pleased with the colour I achieved in that colourisation…

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Solved! The Mystery of Pinnacle Island…

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After all the debate and discussion, NASA has announced, in a press release, that their clever scientists have solved the mystery of Pinnacle Island. Turns out it didn’t fall from the sky after being blasted out of the ground miles away by an asteroid impact, and it wasn’t thrown at the rover by a gang of mischevious martian kids. No. Occam’s Razor prevailed… as usual… and the rather less dramatic explanation is the most obvious one: Pinnacle Island was tiddly-winked onto the ground next to Oppy after one of the rover’s wheels rolled over and then broke up a larger rock nearby (“Stuart Island”, see previous post for pics), sending pieces of it skittering away, as this NASA image explains…

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So, Pinnacle Island is the classic “chip off the old block”. Here’s the full explanation from the NASA press release…

February 14, 2014

Researchers have determined the now-infamous Martian rock resembling a jelly doughnut, dubbed Pinnacle Island, is a piece of a larger rock broken and moved by the wheel of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in early January.

Only about 1.5 inches wide (4 centimeters), the white-rimmed, red-centered rock caused a stir last month when it appeared in an image the rover took Jan. 8 at a location where it was not present four days earlier.

More recent images show the original piece of rock struck by the rover’s wheel, slightly uphill from where Pinnacle Island came to rest.

“Once we moved Opportunity a short distance, after inspecting Pinnacle Island, we could see directly uphill an overturned rock that has the same unusual appearance,” said Opportunity Deputy Principal Investigator Ray Arvidson of Washington University in St. Louis. “We drove over it. We can see the track. That’s where Pinnacle Island came from.”

Examination of Pinnacle Island revealed high levels of elements such as manganese and sulfur, suggesting these water-soluble ingredients were concentrated in the rock by the action of water. “This may have happened just beneath the surface relatively recently,” Arvidson said, “or it may have happened deeper below ground longer ago and then, by serendipity, erosion stripped away material above it and made it accessible to our wheels.”

Now that the rover is finished inspecting this rock, the team plans to drive Opportunity south and uphill to investigate exposed rock layers on the slope.

So, there you go. Those “tracks” I spotted on the ground slightly up the slope? Nothing to do with Pinnacle Island after all. The little rock just tap danced its way to Oppy from barely a few feet away. Oh well, I’m just pleased that the NASA team figured it out. It’s still a fascinating story, isn’t it?

…not fascinating enough for some though, it seems. When NASA posted its press release on Facebook, inevitably some of the growing legion of space conspiracy theory nutters and whackos weren’t going to take their word for it…

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Yeah, well, that’s not too fruit loopy I guess. Ever since that film CAPRICORN ONE came out there have been people insisting NASA’s whole space program has been faked since Apollo. But this level of stoopid is new…

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I hope that guy is being silly and having a joke, but the classic Trolling use of UPPER CASE suggests otherwise. Still, if NASA really is preventing the discovery of life on other plants that would be news, wouldn’t it..?

More soon, Oppy’s on the move again…!

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Another Island…

More images have come back from the rim of Endeavour crater, showing the mysterious “jumping rock” Pinnacle Island and its surroundings. Here’s my latest colourisation…

PI plus Stuart Island

Pinnacle Island is, of course, the strange-looking “shell” of rock to the lower left there. To its upper right, just to the right of centre, is a larger, squarer-looking block of rock. Here it is in close up on another of my colourisations…

Stuart Island

Guess what they’ve called it… Go on, guess…

STUART ISLAND”!

Now I’m not sure what it’s been named after, but I know – contrary to what some very generous/optimistic/drunk readers are suggesting – it’s not been named after me! I wish! ( Actually, no, I don’t wish, because I think you have to be dead to have a feature or place on Mars named after you, and although that would be lovely one day I’m no rush to be given that honour. .! )

You know, with all these rocks being named after famous islands, it really is time we had a rock named “Craggy Island”, after the home of this lot, don’t you think?

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